Ship quieting technology
Information about technologies that have been proven to reduce underwater noise in ships and boats. The emphasis here should be on practical solutions that make economic sense to boat owners.
Thanks to Brandon Southall of NOAA for coordinating the conferences on this subject and for distilling much of these data and resources! As I wrote to him, "It would be *great* if there were some case studies that include cost/benefit analysis of particular quieting technologies (including practical manufacturer-model-number-type specifics)." Let's try to focus on such information here.
- Endangered southern resident killer whales use sound for communication and foraging
- Ships and boats dominate the noise budget within killer whale critical habitat
- It is relatively feasible to mitigate the risk of acoustic impacts (compared with risks due to salmon depletion and persistent pollutants)
- Recreational retrofits are possible
- Commercial whale watching vessels could be quieted
- WA State ferries are being replaced
- Commercial ships transit critical habitat ~20 times/day
International workshops and agreements
- Communications between the U.S. and the International Maritime Organization's Marine Environment Protection Committee Issue statement (December, 2007) | Request to add to agenda (June, 2008)
- Report from Hamburg Workshop (April 21-24, 2008) "International Workshop on Shipping Noise and Marine Mammals"
- International Symposia on "Potential Application of Vessel-Quieting Technology on Large Commercial Vessels"
Ships (large vessels)
- Ship noise underwater in Haro Strait (Veirs and Veirs, 2006, ASA presentation; PPT | PPT zip (w/sound files)
- Cost/benefit ideas for commercial ships (Wittekind, 2007, from 2007 Symposium site)
- Veth Z-drive (mentions sound level, but no measurements provided)
Boats (small vessels)
- Whale watch noise in Haro Strait (Hildebrand et al., 2006)
- Sounds from whale watching vessels (Tim Hunt; fall, 2007) "Investigating high frequency underwater boat noise and potential masking of killer whale echolocation clicks"
- "Thrustor" ducted propeller systems are being tested and patented by Marine Propulsion Technologies in CA (no noise reduction results as of 10/2008).
Existing prototypes fit: Mercury Bravo II Konrad stern drive (240-260 series) Evinrude 150 hp to 250 hp
Evinrudes generally run relatively smaller propellers in the 150-250 hp class, which is compatible with the Thrustor and the necessary propeller clearances. Bravo II and Konrad usually are heavier vessels with bigger hp and a need for maximum prop surface for max performance. The Thrustor for these boats is 19.5" inside diameter (I.D.). One inch to 1.5" clearance is necessary to prevent pressurizing the nozzle system and adding unnecessary prop torque. It is recommended to use 16.5-17.5" diameter props.
- Durajet (no noise reduction results as of 10/2008).
Compatible engines: Evinrude E-Tec Tiller 40, Remote 40, 50, and 60HP Johnson Commercial Tiller 20, 30, 35, 55, Remote 60 and 70HP Mercury Tiller and Remote 2-stroke and 4-stroke 40 Tohatsu/Nissan 2 and 4-stroke 25 and 30HP remote and tiller
- Berkeley jet?